Fitting external audio jacks to a RGB to component transcoder

If you have an RGB to component transcoder like the CSY-2100 (useful for playing RGB retro console on a TV without SCART or RGB inputs, but happens to have component video), you may have noticed the box doesn’t have any built-in way to get audio (stereo or mono) off the SCART adapter. However, it’s not too difficult to build this on yourself if your console has no other way of outputting audio by adding a couple of RCA sockets to your transcoder. Note that in no way do I take credit for the idea – that goes to legendary modding stalwart GameSX and their equally awesome NFG forums.

The theory is simple – consider the following from Wikipedia’s entry on the SCART standard:

Pins 2 and 6 carry right and left audio respectively, and pin 4 can act as a ground. So, all you need to do is wire something off the SCART connector inside the transcoder’s box to add an output for your audio. The following should help you achieve such a feat.

Equipment needed:

  • Two insulated wires of a length suitable for mounting the connectors – I used some old stereo RCA cables I butcher for various mods, as the shielding can be used to carry the ground to the RCA sockets
  • 2x RCA sockets (red and black in this example) you can solder to with the screw-in sleeves to protect the solder points
  • Solder, soldering iron, screw driver and drill/drill bits for threading the wires


You mod your machine at your own risk. Myself nor anyone else is responsible for YOU modding YOUR RGB transcoder. If your machine doesn’t work as a result of this, don’t blame me – you do this mod at your own risk.

Step one:

Remove the screws so this:

Becomes this:

… and the part we’ll be working on is the SCART connector:

Step two:

Before we get started on the soldering, it’s time to mod the case. Since I wanted the wires to hang outside the case (there’s not enough room to mount two extra RCA sockets, though the NFG crew used a 3.5mm stereo headphone socket so that’s an option if you want to try something different), I drilled a hole on the output side of the case with enough give for two wires to hang out, and the whole is open at the top so I don’t have to thread anything through, the two wires simply sit in the groove and the top of the case will cover the top:

Step three:

Next up I cut the wires to length, stripped the ends, gathered the shielding and separated it from the signal and tinned all the tips. To make it easier at the SCART connector, I combined the shielding from both wires and tinned them together. This will make it easier to make one connection to pin 4 on the connector.

At the other end, slide the sleeves down the wires and wire up the RCA connectors. The inner portion of the shielded cable (in my case, one had red insulation, the other white) goes to the middle solder connection on the RCA socket, and the shielding goes to the outside connection. Solder everything up, test with a multimeter to ensure everything’s clean (optional, but recommended), then slide up and screw on the protective plastic sleeve.

Finally, tie a knot in the middle-ish of the cable – the idea is that the knot will hit the side of the casing before the wires tug on the soldered connections on the SCART socket if pulled, so experiment to find the best spot to tie the knot. An alternative method would be to use a cable-tie instead of a knot.

Step four:

Time to solder the sucker! Using the SCART diagram, locate pins 2, 4 and 6. In my case, they were on the top row and took the first three pins from the left with the connector pins facing me. Solder Right (red) to pin 2, shielding/ground to pin 4 and Left (white or black) to pin 6. Ensure your connections are strong and clean, we don’t want any dry solder joints! Again, a multimeter makes these kind of checks simple, so I recommend you use one to test everything.

Step five:

Finally, place your wire in the area you’re ground/drilled out of the case (if your hole isn’t open on top like mine, make sure you put the wires through the hole first before soldering in the previous step), plonk on the top of the case and re-assemble everything.

And there you go – external audio-out connections to ensure you can still get sound coming from the transcoder’s box 🙂

Adapting the “Penny mod” for Rock Band drums in Australia

I was recently fixing up my mate McAdam’s 1st generation Rock Band drums after a session resulted in his green pad becoming unresponsive. Cue the illustrious “Penny mod” and adapting this for Rock Band players in Australia, or the return of the humble 5c piece 🙂

This one’s pretty simple – the following two videos off YouTube show how to perform the Penny mod:

If you’re after the software to test out the end result as seen in the video, you can get it at the Drum Machine website. I used it in my case, and it worked a treat.

For me, I found that a 5c piece was a good substitute for a penny. I used two for each of the outer pads (green and red), and one for each of the inner pads (yellow and blue). The end result was a much more responsive drum, which was great.

The other thing to keep in mind is if the actual solder connections have been killed, either through the solder breaking or the wire snapping. If either of these greet you when you check out the sensors, OXM Online have a guide.

Adding a switch to the 60hz colour mod

Last year I wrote a guide to get colour video out of your Mega Drive via s-video, composite and RF cables, but I’ve noticed that since using the RGB to component transcoder, the colour was flickering on my CRT I play my Mega Drive on. I tested it on our flat panel TV, and sure enough there’s some extra noise in the picture when running the SMD with the external oscillator. So, I figured I’d make a switch to go between the original feed from the Mega Drive and the oscillator, which gives the best flexibility if ever I use the SMD via s-video or composite if I’m not hooking it up via RGB/component.

The theory is simple – grab a SPDT (single pole, double-throw) switch, wire the middle (output) pin to where we used to put the oscillator’s output, wire the oscillator to one of the remaining sides and grab the existing feed off the mainboard and wire that to the other. To help out, here’s what I did:

Equipment needed:

  • Remember to read this one in conjunction with the previous mod and have the oscillator ready to go!
  • Two wires of a length suitable for mounting the switch (remember you’ll only need two as the existing output wire off your oscillator will be fine for adding to the switch, unless you need to lengthen it, then you should replace it)
  • SPDT (single pole, double throw) switch
  • Solder, soldering iron, screw driver and drill/drill bits for mounting the switch


You mod your machine at your own risk. Myself nor anyone else is responsible for YOU modding YOUR Mega Drive/Genesis. If your machine doesn’t work as a result of this, don’t blame me – you do this mod at your own risk.

Step one:

Obviously, discharge and disassemble your Mega Drive and remove the mainboard and have it facing up. Be careful you don’t damage the wires hooking the oscillator you fitted from the previous tutorial.

Step two:

As per the previous mod, here’s the input signal being fed from the external oscillator into the CXA1145 IC. We’ll need to remove this to replace it with the switch’s output so we can select between the original and oscillated frequencies.

Step three:

Here we have a SPDT (single pole, double throw) switch wired up and ready to go. The middle (yellow) wire goes to the CXA1145 IC’s input, which is where we used to send the oscillator if you followed the previous mod; the green wire is from the external oscillator, and; the brown wire will take the original feed from the Mega Drive’s mainboard for RGB compatibility.

Step four:

This shows the middle (yellow) wire from the switch wired to where we used to put the oscillator. It functions as the output from the switch’s two sources.

Step five:

I’ve highlighted a point on the underside of the mainboard where you can easily solder a wire to connect to carry the Mega Drive’s original frequency to give RGB compatibility.

Step six:

To ensure I only wire the correct signal, I use some electrical tape to isolate the solder point.

Step seven:

Tin the tip, heat some solder and attach one of the wires from your switch’s input poles to the point. I’ve used the brown wire.

Step eight:

If you haven’t done so already, grab the output from the oscillator and wire it to the other side of the switch. If the wire isn’t long enough to reach to where the switch will be mounted, remove it and use another wire – it’s best to avoid joining wires together part-way along the oscillator’s input to ensure the signal remains strong and steady.

Step nine:

And that’s all there is to it – use the output from the oscillator (green) and attach that to the other side of the switch, secure your connections with electrical tape, and get ready to assemble. For those interested, the black wire at the top of the mainboard in this pic is a hardwired composite socket I built so that I could use standard AV cables with my Mega Drive.

Step ten:

I wanted to keep everything on the back of the unit, but placed in a way that would allow for the Power Base Converter to still be hooked up, so I installed the switch next to the 60/60hz and JP/Eng language switches which are next to the AV socket, where the Ext. socket would be if I had an earlier-model Mega Drive 1.

All in – would be great if I’d lined up those holes a little nicer though! Once I had the switch installed, I found I was no longer getting any issues with my Mega Drive when running it in RGB via the transcoder, so if you intend to run the machine in RGB at some stage, fit the switch!

Replacing a broken button on the Amiga mouse

Sorted this out a while ago – I had an Amiga mouse where the left mouse button wasn’t hitting anything when I pressed it. Opened up the mouse and found that the entire switch for the mouse had broken off at some point in its life and hadn’t been fixed. Since tactile micro switches are cheap and abundant (I grabbed a spare off a dead DVD-ROM’s open button), I thought I’d fix it. Here’s what I did:

  1. Flip the mouse over and remove the two screws
  2. Flip it back over and remove the top of the case to reveal the mainboard/PCB inside. There are another two black screws holding the assembly to the bottom case – remove them, and take the board out of the case
  3. Use your multimeter to determine which ends of the tacticle switch join when pressed and make sure the ground and signal portions of the board aren’t connected when the button isn’t depressed. Once you have it sorted, place the switch in the holes accordingly
  4. To keep the switch in place while you work from underneath the board, use some electrical tape to hold the switch flush to the PCB
  5. Flip the board over so you’re working from the solder-side, ensure your soldering iron is heated and flow the holes with solder and trim off any excess from the pins to keep it neat and tidy
  6. Test the connection with your multimeter, then put everything back together again

And that should do it – a very easy fix, and one that’ll probably work for other computer (or console) mice as well. To give you a hand, I’ve also added an image gallery, or you can just check out the images below.

PAL Sega Mega Drive colour correction – 60hz in full colour in RF, composite and S-Video!

Update (7 April, 2011): I’ve noticed this method introduces noise in the RGB channels when playing games via RGB or via a transcoder. Therefore I recommend you add a switch to go between the original signal and the oscillator for best results. A tutorial to do this can be found here.

A few years back, with the help of the regulars at the NFG forums/GameSX (in particular, Viletim! was instrumental in helping me with this), I was able to put together a relatively simple method for getting 60hz in full colour out of a PAL Mega Drive when output via RF, composite and S-Video, and a method that still kept the full colour signal even if switched back to 50hz on the fly. Apologies in advance for some of the pics, but I hope other modders find this one useful. The other essential resource for getting this happening was Charles McDonald’s Home Page, so huge thanks out there as well.

Equipment needed:

  • 4.43mhz crystal oscillator (WES Component # QXO-1100, source [Australia])
  • Thin-gauge wire
  • Soldering iron (15 or 25 watt – I use the latter, but 15w ones are better I’m told)
  • Solder and desoldering wick (if you stuff up)
  • Stanley knife or something sharp to cut PCB traces
  • Screwdriver (d’uh!)


You mod your machine at your own risk. Myself nor anyone else is responsible for YOU modding YOUR Mega Drive/Genesis. If your machine doesn’t work as a result of this, don’t blame me – you do this mod at your own risk.


Throwing a 50/60hz switch is easy to do on a Mega Drive – for PAL gamers, the problem is to get it to output the 60hz signal in colour. Providing you have a telly that can accept RGB via SCART, this is a non-issue – the RGB feed comes out great regardless of whether its in 50hz or 60hz. Should you have a 32X, you’re also set – the a/v-out on the 32X cleans up the 60hz colour issue, though apparently some early model Mega Drives still have issues despite this.

So, if like myself and plenty of others you don’t have a SCART socket on your telly or a 32X, this mod will show you how to fix up this arse of a fault in your PAL Mega Drive and get it to output 60hz as a proper PAL60 signal, whether it be via crappy composite leads or a custom-built s-video connection. Props out to viletim! from the NFG Games forums who came up with the solution btw – we in the community owe this one to him! Note this was all done on an original model PAL Mega Drive, not model 2 or 3 or what-not; your console may differ from mine, so you mod your machine at your own peril.

Step one: Disassemble Mega Drive

This one’s pretty easy so I won’t go into it – disassemble the whole lot, including the heatsink and everything. We want to be able to take the PCB (printed circuit board, or the board that is the guts of the Mega Drive) entirely out off the case to get to the underside of the PCB itself. If you know your way around the Mega Drive, you could probably skip taking the heatsink off the board itself if you know where the CXA-1145 chip is; otherwise, remove it.

Step two: locating the chip

The aim of this mod is to feed a new signal onto pin 6 of the Mega Drive’s CXA-1145 chip to get it to generate a colour picture when it’s running in 60hz. Obviously to do this we’ll need to find the chip. The CXA-1145 (or the Irony Chip as I call it – “It’s a Sony”) is located on the top left-hand side of the PCB underneath the poxy RF mod we all used in the 90s owing to our crap-tacular tellies. See the image below for a general guide:

Or for a dodgy close-up view, here’s this:

Our victim will be pin 6 of the CXA-1145, which is the oscillator input. Apparently anyway. Viletim! said it was, and my crap understanding of schematics reckons that’s what its called, so we’ll call it that. You could also name the pin the “Mr Bob” pin or “I wish I were as cool as Sauceman” pin for all I care (“Kloppy is a champ” pin is another), as long as you use pin 6, it’s all good. To work out which is pin 6, count from the bottom-right of the chip if you’re looking at it normally, or in the above image, the bottom left-hand side (the one with a little ‘1’ printed on the PCB) and count up six pins… or just use the above image as a guide and count to the right. It’s all good.

Step three: Cutting the trace

Now we’ve located the chip and the pin, we need to turn the board over so we can attack it with a stanley knife or equivalent cutting device (I’ve heard of x-acto knives or somesort being talked about in the past – whatever, as long as you can use it to cut a trace on the PCB). You could use pin 1 as a guide and count up then follow the traces from pin 6 through a capacitor and a resistor to get to the point we need, but thanks to the power of the intarweb [sic] and some schematics available online, we can use the references to the capacitors and resistors to work out what we’re supposed to cut.

You’ll need to look for ‘C28’ and ‘R23’ – see below:

Now, the astute observer will notice that there is a thin trace that runs off the resistor and continues along its merry path to the 315-5313 IC8. What we need to do is cut this trace AFTER its followed the resistor – see below for an example:

And for your reference, here’s what I did:

Make sure you do this carefully and DO NOT cut any of the other traces nearby. Good lighting and a steady hand makes a really big difference here – be patient cut the trace all the way through. You’ll know you’ve severed it when you can see the green trace all gone and the core of the circuit board is visible; you know, the light brown stuff. If you don’t cut it all the way through, the mod won’t work correctly. If you accidently cut the wrong trace or damage a nearby one, make sure you bridge it – GameSX has some good guides to this, so visit their website for more info.

Step 5: Wiring the oscillator, part 1

Okay, before we get into soldering to the PCB, let’s get our oscillator ready to go. All this is based on the assumption you’re using the WES component # QXO-1100 that I used; I’m assuming you could substitute it for something similar, but you do that at your own peril. I’m just following what was suggested to me.

The image below is of the oscillator’s specs from the catalogue:

You’ll note that there are 4 pins and that it has rounded edges, the exception being the one labelled ‘NC’ or ‘not connected’ which was a straight edge – this is important so we know which pins require what in order to operate. The + pin requires 5v that we can draw anywhere from the board, and the – pin requires a ground connection that we can also grab from the board. The out pin is the bit that sends out the signal we need, and consequently is the pin we need to connect to the PCB point we’ve just cut. The nc pin isn’t connected, and we use the straight corner to work out how we wire everything up.

How you wire it is up to you – I threw it onto some veroboard and soldered to the underside of it, but looking back I probably didn’t need to. Since it can be a little squeezy inside the Mega Drive’s case, I wired everything so I could have it sitting in the space beside the PCB when I put the console back together, hence why I used long lengths of wire. There may be better options out there, but I figured that’d do for now.

With that out the way, let’s actually get to work.

Step 6: Wiring the oscillator, part 2

Okay, let’s do the deed. First up, wire the + and – points – I used the ground pin on the CXA-1144 (pin 1) to get my – bit, and tapped the 5v point over on where I set up my 50/60hz and language switches (see below for images – I’m pretty sure I tapped JP2 for it). I think the CXA-1145 has somewhere where you could tap 5v, but I was too lazy to work it out 😛 Grab some appropriate lengths of wire (as you can see below, I used reasonably long lengths for where I was going to let the oscillator sit), strip the ends, tin the tips and get to work on the + and – points.

Next, we have to get the output from the new oscillator to feed into the CXA-1145 – you could either solder directly to the trace, or do the lazy method and solder to the pad the resistor is sitting on that runs along the trace (in the pics below, it’s the one to the right, or the one the trace runs off). Just don’t get too carried away and f&*% up the resistor, otherwise you’ll have to repair or replace it. The following images show how I hooked everything up:



Step 7: Finishing up

Well, that’s the bulk of it done. Use electrical tape on the connections to make sure you don’t stress the joins you’ve made, then wrap a layer of electrical tape around the chip to make sure nothing causes a short anywhere. Reassemble and don’t pull on those wires! I plonked mine near the headphone bits ’cause there was room there.

Step 8: Test it!

Test your Mega Drive and hopefully it works! I tested all my PAL, US and Japanese games and they worked fine. You’ll find that when you swap between 50/60hz there’s a lag of about 1-second before it gets the colour right, but that just be my display device. Otherwise, it’s all good. I’ve tested this in composite and s-video connections and had total success. In my testing, I have found the external oscillator does interfere with RGB output, so if you want to reverse it, desolder everything and bridge the gap you created when you cut the trace coming off pin 6 on the CXA-1145; alternatively, add a switch to go between the external oscillator and the original signal, which I’ve written a tutorial for if you need some help. I’ve posted previously about running this same Mega Drive through a RGB to component transcoder, and I had noise and colour issues; switching back to the original signal fixed all the issues, so if you want the most flexibility in your system, install the switch.

And that’s it! Good luck, and feel free to leave comments if you have any questions, or fire across an e-mail via the Contact page. If you want to view the lot, you can do so via the gallery.